|Title||Abstracts - Director Jerome H. Kim|
Vaccines for Global Health: IVI & Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Development
Director General, International Vaccine Institute
The 2013 Global Burden of Disease study estimated that there are 160,000 deaths from typhoid annually. In developed countries the decrease in typhoid was strongly related to improvements in sanitation, water, and hygiene. However, in much of the world, access to these development-related improvements remains poor. Through the Typhoid Surveillance in Africa Program and its successor the Severe Typhoid in Africa Program, a more accurate picture of the true burden of typhoid is being developed. This will be critical information as the next generation of typhoid vaccines enters use. The Ty21a typhoid vaccine and the Vi polysaccharide based vaccines have limitations in use or practicality, and are not indicated in the age group hard typhoid (children < 2 years of age). Conjugation of Vi to carrier protein appears to improve its immunogenicity in this age group. One vaccine (Bharat) is approved in India but is not prequalified and a second is pending approval in China. A Vi-DT conjugate vaccine developed by IVI and made by SK Chemicals has entered Phase I testing in the Philippines, and additional typhoid conjugate vaccines are expected. Critically these vaccines have to be linked to a vaccination programs that will facilitate the introduction and more widespread use of these conjugate vaccines. Coordination among international bodies, national immunization programs, and national surveillance networks will be important in generating the information necessary to maximize impact of these new technologies.
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